1. Research and development: determining chemical kinetic mechanisms and
parameters form laboratory or pilot plant reaction data; exploring the effects
of different operating conditions for optimizations and control studies; aiding
in scale up calculations.
2. Design: exploring the sizing and arrangement of processing equipment for
dynamic performance; studying the interactions of various parts of the process,
particularly when material recycle or heat integration is used; evaluating
alternative process and control structures and strategies; simulating start up,
shutdown, and emergency situations and procedures.
3. Plant operation troubleshooting control and processing problem; aiding in
start up and operator training ; studying the effects of and the requirements
for expansion projects; optimizing plant operation. It is usually much cheaper,
safer, and faster to conduct the kinds of studies listed above on a mathematical
model than experimentally on an operating unit. This is not to say that plant
tests are not needed. As we will discuss later, they are a vital part of
confirming the validity of the model and of verifying important ideas and
recommendations that evolve from the model studies.
We will discuss in this book only deterministic systems that can be described by
ordinary of partial differential equations. Most of the emphasis will be on
lumped systems ( with one independent variable, time, described by ordinary
differential equations). Both English and SI units will be used. You need to be
familiar with both.